ORTHOGRAPHIC CONVENTIONS

LANNANG ORTHOGRAPHY (Version 1.1 July 8, 2020)

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1. SOUNDS

1.1 Consonants

1.1.1 Bilabials (Lips)

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

b                                  [b]                               bá                    ques. marker (Tag)  

p                                  [p]                               pá                    father (Hok)

m                                 [m]                              má                   mother (Hok)

 

1.1.2 Labiodentals

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

f                                   [f]                                feathèr            feather (Eng)

v                                  [v]                                violìn               violin (Eng)                  

 

1.1.3 Dental/alveolar/postalveolar

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

t                                   [t]                                tiaú                  string (Hok)

d                                  [d]                               diaú                 wrinkled (Hok)

n                                  [n]                               niaū                 cat (Hok, variant)

r                                   [ɻ]                                Russià              Russia (Eng)

s                                  [s]                                siaû                 crazy (Hok)

z                                  [z]                                zebrà               zebra (Eng)      

sh                                [ʃ]                                 shangá            who (Hok, variant)      

l                                   [l]                                 liaû                  done (Hok, variant)

 

1.1.4 Affricates

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

j                                   [dʒ]                              jaìl                   jail (Eng)

ts                                 [ts]                               tsiá                  here (Hok)

tsh                               [tsh]                             tshiā                car (Hok)

ch                                [tʃ ̚]                             chá                  here (Hok, variant)

chh                              [tʃ]                               chhā                car (Hok, variant)

 

1.1.5 Palatal

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

y                                  [j]                                 yá                    very (Hok)

 

1.1.6 Velars and Labiovelars

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

k                                  [k]                                kaú                  monkey (Hok)

g                                  [g]                                gaú                  smart (Hok)

ng                                [ŋ]                               siangá              who (Hok)

w                                 [w]                               tsiûwâ             how (Hok)

 

1.1.7 Glottal

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

∅V                               [ʔ]                                yá                    very (Hok)       

                                                                        aū                    after (Hok)

Vh                                [ʔ]                                káh                  carry (Hok)

                                                                        aûh                  fold (Hok, variant)

∅V and Vh                   [ʔ]                                ∅iáh                 page (Hok)

                                                                h              fold (Hok)

1.1.8 Syllabic nasal

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

m                                 [m]                               msī                  no (Hok)

n                                  [ŋ]                                tng                   long (Hok, variant)

 

1.2 Vowels

 

1.2.1 Monophthongs 

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

a                                  [a], [ʌ]                        bâh                  meat (Hok)

e                                  [e], [ɛ]                        bê                    horse (Hok)

i                                   [i], [ɪ]                           bî                    rice (Hok)

o                                  [o],[ɔ], [ɤ]                   bô                   wife (Hok)

u                                  [u],[ʊ],[ɯ]                   bû                    mother (Hok)                          

u                                  before syllabic          ūmsī                no (Hok)

                                    nasals (m [m])

                                    that have a "uh"-like

                                    sound before.

 

1.2.1 Diphthongs

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

ai                                 [aɪ]                              haî                   ocean (Hok)                

au                                [aʊ]                             haû                  cry (Hok)

iu                                 [ɪʊ]                              hiūsiâk             rest (Hok)

ia                                 [ɪa]                              hiá                   there (Hok)

ua                                [ua] or [ʊa]                  huà                  hold (Hok)

ue                                [ʊa]                             huē                  flower (Hok)

ui                                 [ʊɪ]                              huîh                 blood (Hok)

 

1.2.2 Triphthongs

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

iau                               [ɪaʊ]                            iaū                   hungry (Hok)   

uai                               [uaɪ]                            uaī                   crooked (Hok)

 

1.3 Airflow Mechanisms

 

1.3.1 Aspiration

 

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

p                                  [p]                               pē                    fly (Hok)

ph                                [ph]                              phē                  blanket (Hok)

t                                   [t]                                tê                     follow (Hok)

th                                 [th]                               thê                   attitude (Hok)

k                                  [k]                                kaû                  dog (Hok)

kh                                [kh]                              khaû                window (Hok)

ts                                 [ts]                               tsâ                   then (Hok)

tsh                               [tsh]                             tshâ                 noisy (Hok)

 

1.3.2 Nasalization

orthography               IPA transcription        example          translation

a                                  [a]       or        [ʌ]        kâ                    teach (Hok)

ann                              [ã]        or        [ʌ̃]        kânn                child (Hok)

 

i                                   [i]         or         [ɪ]        pí                     compare (Hok)

inn                               [ĩ]         or         [ɪ̃]        pínn                 level (Hok)

 

iu                                 [ɪʊ]                              siūtsuî             swim (Hok)

iunn                             [ɪʊ̃]                              siūnn               think (Hok)

 

ia                                 [ɪa]                              iá                     win (Hok, variant)                   

iann                             [ɪã]                              iánn                 win (Hok)

 

ua                                [ua] or [ʊa]                  uâ                    bowl (Hok, variant)

uann                            [uã] or [ʊã]                  uânn                bowl (Hok)

 

1.4 Tone

 

Tone 1: High tone

Diacritic: â

 

example          translation

kaû                  dog (Hok)

guākhaû          outside (Hok)

tētê                 very short (Hok)

kasî                  because (Tag)

 

Tone 2: Mid tone

Diacritic: ā

 

example          translation

kaū                  submit (Hok)

guākhaû          outside (Hok)

tētê                 very short (Hok)

Huīdīpīn          Philippines (Hok)

 

Tone 3: Low tone

Diacritic: none

example          translation

cowbêlls          cowbells (Eng)

pero                but (Tag from Spanish)

 

Tone 4: Falling tone

Diacritic: à

 

example          translation

kaù                  arrive (Hok)

khà                  call (Hok)

thiaù                jump (Hok)

kantò               corner (Tag)

bathroòm        bathroom (Eng)

 

Tone 5: Rising tone

Diacritic: á

 

example          translation

kaú                  monkey (Hok)

diaú                 wrinkled (Hok)

babóy              pig (Tag)

Barbié             Barbie (Eng)

 

Undefined tone

Diacritic: None

 

example          translation

la                     Clause final particle (Hok, variant)      

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