Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales
language contact, Philippine English, Philippine Englishes, sociolinguistics, variation, Hokaglish
After outlining recent developments and surveying various perspectives, I argue that scholars should adopt the notion of Philippine ‘Englishes’ to acknowledge all substrate-influenced ‘regional’ (e.g. Iloilo English), social, and hybrid varieties (e.g. Hokaglish). Beginning with a brief overview of the current situation, I examine literature hinting for the invalidation of a standard Philippine English, identifying some evidence of variation due to (socio)linguistic factors through a concise survey of local Englishes. The study asserts that the Philippine Englishes model is more encompassing and forward-looking; it also shows some evidence that Philippine English is at the dawn of stage 5 (differentiation) of Schneider’s dynamic model. Although this model might raise more questions, it hopes to challenge researchers to embark on new-wave investigations on local Englishes while encouraging them to utilize existing research and frameworks. Ultimately, what this study hopes to provide is a fresh perspective on the preponderance of literature on Philippine English by introducing the said model.