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Vowel system or vowel systems?
Wilkinson Daniel Wong Gonzales & Rebecca Starr
Linguistic Society of America
mixed languages, Philippine Hybrid Hokkien, monophthong, vowel, phonology
Philippine Hybrid Hokkien (PHH) has a unified monophthongal system that is distinct from its source languages, maintaining a partial tense-lax distinction not typical of Hokkien, Tagalog, or varieties of Philippine English.
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